Paul Tough lays it bare: we believe that success comes from those who score highest on tests, from preschool to SATs. Yet evidence indicates that our story here might be dead wrong. Using the tools of science, Tough peels back the mysteries of character and traces the links between early childhood neurological development and environment. By showing how “nature” and “nurture” are intertwined, he explores how childhood stresses modify life success and the surprising ways that parents do—and do not—prepare their children for adulthood. He helps us understand how early adversity affects childhood emotional, social, and cognitive development, and what we can do about it. Tough is the author, most recently, of Helping Children Succeed: What Works and Why. He is also the author of How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character. He is a contributing writer to the New York Times Magazine and a speaker on various topics, including education, poverty, parenting, and politics.