Fourth Graders focus on developing multiplication and division strategies for operating with larger numbers. The Grade 4 math program implements a spiraling approach to mathematical concepts and skills at increasing levels of complexity.Topics & Skills:
● Addition and Subtraction: Children extend their knowledge of the base-10 number system to 1,000,000, learning that any digit is 10 times as great as the same digit one place to its right. They read and write numbers in expanded notation, and also round numbers. Children practice and refine a variety of addition and subtraction strategies including the U.S. standard algorithms for addition and subtraction. Children are encouraged to look carefully at the numbers in a problem, thinking flexibly and choosing the most efficient strategy to solve the problem from a variety of strategies.
● Multiplication and Division: Children develop strategies for multiplying two 2-digit numbers and multiplying up to a 4-digit by a 1-digit number. Strategies for multiplication include breaking numbers apart by place value, keeping one factor whole and adjusting, and creating an equivalent problem. They solve division problems with up to 4-digit dividends, including quotients with remainders. Children find factors and multiples of numbers and identify prime and composite numbers.
● Measurement: Children work with linear, area, and angle measurement, as well as measurement conversions. Their understanding of area deepens as they find the area of different polygons using symmetry and non-standard units. Children learn that angles are measured in terms of a rotation that is part of a circular arc and are measured in degrees.
● Geometry: Children define polygons as closed shapes with straight lines and become familiar with their components—line segments, points, vertices, and angles. They learn that polygons can be classified by their number of sides, and triangles can be classified by the size of their angles.
● Fractions and Decimals: Children increase their understanding of the meaning of rational numbers as they work with halves, thirds, fourths, fifths, sixths, eighths, twelfths, and hundredths. They are introduced to decimals and learn that tenths and hundredths can be written with both fraction and decimal notation.
● Analyzing Patterns and Rules: Children model mathematical relationships associated with two different contexts where two quantities are related in predictable ways. They learn to generate a number pattern that follows a given rule and analyze features of the pattern in order to solve problems.
● Data Analysis: Children model real-world situations with mathematics as they collect, represent, describe, and analyze data in order to compare two groups. Choosing the most important features that characterize a data set, children compare how the two sets are similar or different.